Management of fibroids includes investigations and treatment
•Hb, blood group
•Ultrasound: location, size, number,for follow up of fibroids after menopause and during GnRH therapy
•Hysterosalpingography and salpingography: to identify submucous fibroid and to check patency of fallopian tubes in infertility.
•Hysteroscopy: to identify a submucous polyp and excising it under direct visualisation.
•D and C to rule out endometrial carcinoma.
•Laparoscopy: to excise myomatous polyp in inverted uterus and to identity associated endometriosis and PID
•MRI to recognise sarcomatous changes, useful in virgins and old women where pelvic examination is not possible due to a narrow cervix.
•Intravenous pyelography for broad ligament fibroid to check anatomy of ureters
1.Anemia: iron therapy
2.Menorrhagia: Tranexamic acid 1g iv 6 hourly,
Ethamsylate 500 mg qid,
Mirena IUCD: 52mg levonorgestrel ,
GnRH analogues 4 weekly injections,
Danazol 100-200 mg daily.
3.Pain: NSAIDS like Mefenamic acid 500 mg TID
Surgical treatment :
Surgery is considered in the following cases:
-if patient has a completed family
-if large fibroid >12 weeks size
-if medical treatment is not effective
The different surgeries are:
1.Myomectomy: removal of fibroids leaving the uterus behind.
women desirous of childbearing
women who wish to retain the uterus.
2.Vaginal myomectomy: for submucous fibroid polyps, cervical fibroids, pedunculated fibroids
3.Hysteroscopic myomectomy: for submucous fibroids which are not removable by vaginal route.
It is done under laparoscopic guidance to avoid perforation of uterus.
Excised by cautery, laser or resectoscope.
Newer minimally invasive procedures:
4.Uterine artery embolization: to reduce vascularity and size of fibroid. Menorrhagia and volume of fibroid is decreased.
5.MRI guided laser ablation: high intensity focused ultrasound beam that heats and destroys the fibrous tissue. It is guided by MRI in targeting the beam to the fibroid and it is a non invasive technique.
6.Laparoscopic myolysis: Nd:YAG laser, cryoprobe or diathermy is used to coagulate a subserous fibroid.
7.Hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus
Types of hysterectomy are:
Laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH)