Courts of law

Courts of law are of two types:

1. Criminal Court

2.Civil Court

Criminal Courts, in India, are of the following 4 types:

Supreme Court

High Court

Sessions Court

Magistrates Court

Let’s look into the details of each of these Courts to get a better understanding.


Supreme Court

•It is the highest judicial tribunal and has power of supervision over all courts.

•The Supreme Courts decisions are binding on all other courts.

•Supreme Court is located in New Delhi.


High Court

•High Court is the highest tribunal for the State.

•It is located in the capital of every State.

•The President of India appoints judges of the High Court.


Sessions and District Court

•Sessions Court is located at at the District headquarters.

•Judges of the Sessions Court are appointed by the High Court.

•It can try cases which have been committed to it by a Magistrate.

•If the Sessions Court gives a death sentence, then it has to confirmed by the High Court.

•An Assistant Sessions Court has the power to pass sentence of imprisonment up to 10 years and unlimited fine.

•District Court can only deal with Civil cases.


Magistrates Court

•There are three types of Magistrates:

Chief Judicial Magistrate, First Class Judicial Magistrate, Second Class Judicial Magistrate.

•Judges of Magistrates Court are appointed by High Court.


Any sentence given by a Court may be increased or decreased by a higher Court.

Juvenile Courts have been established by the WHO for juveniles (children under the age of 18 years). This is because children are considered to be different from adults mentally. Juvenile court is presided by a First class woman Magistrate.

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