Causes of hematuria

Glomerular causes :-

Post infectious glomerulonephritis

IgA nephropathy

Henoch-schonlein nephritis

Membranoproliferative GN

Rapidly progressive GN

Uncommon glomerular causes

Lupus nephritis.

Other vasculitides -microscopic polyangiitis.

Familial benign hematuria.

Alport syndrome.

Non glomerular causes

Hypercalciuria.

Renal calculi

Urinary tract infection

Cystic renal disease

Hemorrhagic cystitis

Trauma, exercise

Interstitial nephritis

Uncommon non glomerular causes

Vascular malformations

Coagulation disorders

Thrombocytopenia

Nutcracker syndrome

Renal or bladder malignancy

Mnemonic: “HITTERS”

  • Hematologic disorders – i.e. thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy
  • Infection (cystitis), Inflammation (e.g. from drugs like Cyclophosphamide)
  • Tumor – most common = bladder ca, renal cell ca
  • Trauma
  • Exercise -heavy and strenous
  • Renal disorder – e.g. Glomerulonephritis
  • Stones

-Vishal Jha

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