Knee Joint

Knee joint

Condylar synovial joint between condyles of Femur & Tibia and Saddle joint between Tibia & Patella.
Complex joint as the joint cavity is divided by menisci


  1. Condyles of Femur

  2. Patella

  3. Condyles of Tibia

The Femoral condyles articulate with Tibial condyles below and behind & with Patellar condyles in front

  1. Fibrous capsule
  2. Ligamentum Patellae
  3. Arcuate Popliteal ligament
  4. Tibial collateral ligament
  5. Posterior cruciate ligament
  6. Lateral meniscus ligament
  7. Anterior cruciate ligament
  8. Transverse ligament
  9. Fibular collateral ligament
  10. Oblique Popliteal ligament
  11. Medial meniscus ligament
  1. Femoral Artery – descending genicular branch
  2. Lateral circumflex femoral artery – descending branch
  3. Anterior Tibial artery – 2 recurrent branches
  4. Posterior Tibial artery – circumflex fibular branch
  5. Popliteal artery – 5 genicular branches

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  1. Femoral nerve – through its branches to vasti (specially V. medialis)

  2. Sciatic nerve – through the genicular branches of Tibial and Common Peroneal nerves

  3. Obturator nerve – through its posterior division


Muscle producing the movement

  1. Extension (from sitting on a chair to standing)

Quadriceps femoris (4 heads)

  1. Locking (standing in attention)

Vastus medialis

  1. Unlocking (standing at ease)


  1. Flexion

Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus

  1. Medial rotation of flexed leg

Popliteus, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus

  1. Lateral rotation of flexed leg

Biceps femoris

  • Osteoarthritis
  • Genu varum
  • Genu valgum
  • Meniscal tear (more common in the medial meniscus)
  • Injuries to cruciate ligament (more common in the anterior cruciate ligament)
  • Mal – alignment of Patella
  • Baker’s cyst
  • Semimembranosus bursitis

-Jainam Shah

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