2) Muscles &Joints involved
3) Functional Significance
4) Axis of Movement
5) Limiting Factors
a) Inversion – a movement in which the medial border of the foot is elevated, so that the sole faces medially.
b) Eversion – a movement in which the lateral border of the foot is elevated, so that the sole faces laterally
Flexor hallucis longus
Flexor digitorum longus
help the foot in adjusting to uneven & slippery ground.
These movements take place around an oblique axis running forwards, upwards and medially, passing from back of calcaneum, through the sinus tarsi, to emerge at the superomedial aspect of neck of talus
Tension of peronei
Tension of cervical ligament
Tension of tibialis anterior&posterior
Tension of deltoid ligament
*muscles of opposite movement are the limiting factors
Points to be noted:-
These movements can be produced when the foot is off ground.
When the foot is on ground, these movements help to adjust on uneven grounds.
The entire part of foot below talus moves together.
Inversion accompanied by–plantar flexion of foot & adduction of forefoot.
Eversion accompanied by-dorsiflexion of foot & abduction of forefoot.
–Dharmin Doshi & Soumya Khot