Click on the image to enlarge. -Anuja Mandavkar

Click on the image to enlarge. -Anuja Mandavkar

Click on the image to enlarge. -Anuja Mandavkar

Let’s first understand what it means. ACUTE– transient in nature (rarely leads to renal failure) PROLIFERATIVE– proliferation of endothelial and mesangial cells POST– 1-4 weeks after INFECTIOUS– Occurring because of infections like staphy, strept. GLOMERULONEPHRITIS– Inflammation of glomerulus. PATHOGENESIS The basic mechanism which underlies this disease is SUBEPITHELIAL immune complex deposition. So, just let’s go …

Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis (APGN) or Post Infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) Read More »

Glomerular causes :- Post infectious glomerulonephritis IgA nephropathy Henoch-schonlein nephritis Membranoproliferative GN Rapidly progressive GN Uncommon glomerular causes Lupus nephritis. Other vasculitides -microscopic polyangiitis. Familial benign hematuria. Alport syndrome. Non glomerular causes Hypercalciuria. Renal calculi Urinary tract infection Cystic renal disease Hemorrhagic cystitis Trauma, exercise Interstitial nephritis Uncommon non glomerular causes Vascular malformations Coagulation disorders …

Causes of hematuria Read More »

I Olfactory II Optic III Occulomotor IV Trochlear V Trigeminal VI Abducent VII Facial VIII Auditory IX Glossophharyngeal X Vagus XI Spinal Accessory XII  Hypogossal    -Zareen Shafqat

Hepatic encephalopathy is due to rise in ammonia levels in blood Etiopathogenesis : Increased ammonia level in blood (Most important) Increase in short chain fatty acids Rise in methionine level Rise in false neurotransmitters like octopamine Increased conversion of tryptophan to inhibitory neurotransmitter serotonin Increased sensitivity of CNS neurones to GABA (inhibitory neurotransmitter) Increased conversion …

Hepatic encephalopathy Read More »